头条
两江新区官网> 新闻频道> 头条 > 正文
中国西部城市重庆建设欧洲与东南亚的重要贸易枢纽

    Vital link

    至关重要的连接点

    Western China's Chongqing shaping up as key trade hub between Europe and Southeast Asia

    中国西部城市重庆建设欧洲与东南亚的重要贸易枢纽

    By Andrew Moody and Tan Yingzi in Chongqing

    记者 安德鲁·穆迪 谭英姿 重庆报道

    A new dimension to the burgeoning trade between China and Europe is the huge volume of goods now being carried overland through Central Asia to the western area of the world's second-largest economy.

    中国与欧洲之间贸易蓬勃发展的一个新的方面是,当前欧洲通过中亚陆路运输到世界第二大经济的西部地区的货物量巨大。

    The rail link between Chongqing and Duisburg, Germany, which opened in 2015 and can carry goods along the 11,179-kilometer route in 13 days at its fastest, is now a vital artery of China's Belt and Road Initiative.

    重庆至德国杜伊斯堡之间的铁路线于2015年开通,该路线全程共长11179公里,列车最快可在13天内到达。如今这条铁路线是中国“一带一路”倡议中的重要动脉。

    Greater trade and economic cooperation between Europe and China is therefore key to Premier Li Keqiang's six-day visit to Bulgaria and Germany, which began on July 5.

    因此,欧洲与中国之间更紧密的贸易和经济合作是李克强总理7月5日开始的对保加利亚和德国进行为期6天访问的关键。

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, he attended the seventh leaders meeting of China and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, known as the 16+1.

    在保加利亚的首都索菲亚,李克强总理参加了第七次中国-中东欧国家领导人会晤,也被称为中国-中东欧国家合作(“16+1合作”)。

    Trade between the world's second-largest economy and CEE countries increased by 15.9 percent last year to $68 billion, according to China's Ministry of Commerce.

    据中国商务部的数据,去年作为全球第二大经济体的中国与中东欧国家之间的贸易额增长了15.9%,达到680亿美元。

    In Berlin, Premier Li and German Chancellor Angela Merkel will co-chair the fifth China-Germany intergovernment consultation.

    在柏林,李克强总理和德国总理安格拉•默克尔将共同主持第五轮中德政府磋商。

    Trade with Germany, which is China's biggest European economic partner, increased by 11 percent last year to $168 billion.

    作为中国最大的欧洲经济伙伴,中国与德国之间的贸易额在去年增加了11%,达到1680亿美元。

    At the epicenter of some of this increased trade with Europe is Chongqing, the municipality in Southwest China with a population of more than 30 million.

    重庆,这个在中国西南片区拥有3000万人口的直辖市成为了与欧洲贸易增长的中心。

    Once seen as being at the wrong end of the mighty Yangtze River, which links the city with Shanghai, it is developing into one of China's most important trade hubs, which is having a regenerative effect on the country's entire western region. In 2017, Chongqing's GDP grew at 9.3 percent, significantly higher than the 6.9 percent nationally.

    曾一度有人认为重庆不足以被视为长江上游重要节点城市,要知道长江的另一头是连接着上海。现在,重庆正发展成为中国最重要的贸易中心之一,对中国的整个西部地区都产生了再生性影响。2017年,重庆的GDP增长率为9.3%,远高于全国的6.9%

    Not only does Chongqing have road and rail links to Europe through Central Asia, but it is also linked to Southeast Asia through the Southern Transport Corridor, which links Chongqing by rail to Qinzhou Port in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, providing a gateway to Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore.

    重庆不仅有通过中亚联通欧洲的公路和铁路,而且还有连接东南亚的南向通道。南向通道通过铁路连接重庆到广西壮族自治区的钦州港,为泰国、越南、马来西亚和新加坡提供进入中国的通道。

    As a result, Europe also has a land connection now to Southeast Asia, with Chongqing as the vital link.

    正因如此,欧洲如今也通过重庆这个重要的纽带,与东南亚建立起了连接。

    At the center of all this activity is the Liangjiang New Area, which occupies 1,200 square kilometers in Chongqing. It was the third State-level economic development zone of its kind when created in 2010.

    重庆的两江新区是所有这些活动的中心,占地1200平方公里。它是2010年创建的第三个国家级开发开放新区。

    In the meeting room of the new area's headquarters in the Jinshan building on Jinyu Avenue, Li Guang, the 55-year-old vice-president of the Liangjiang New Area Investment Invitation Group, says the European connection is very important now for Chongqing.

    在位于金渝大道的金山大厦的两江新管委会会议室里,55岁的两江招商集团副总裁李光介绍,现在重庆与欧洲的关系非常重要。

    "The railway connection has been very important for development here. Goods can be transported in and out of Chongqing, and we have become a logistics hub for goods from the rest of China and also from Southeast Asia to Europe. It is all part of the opening-up of the west of China as part of China's Belt and Road Initiative."

    “铁路连接对于重庆的发展非常重要。货物可以从这里进出,重庆已经成为中国的其他地区,以及东南亚到欧洲的物流中心。这些都是中国内陆开放和中国‘一带一路’倡议的组成部分。”

    The Liangjiang New Area - whose name means two rivers, in reference to Chongqing's location at the convergence of the Yangtze and Jialing rivers - is home to 147of Chongqing's 250 Fortune Global 500 companies. Last year, it attracted one-third, or $3.3 billion (2.8 billion euros; £2.5 billion), of the city's $10 billion of inward investment.

    重庆两江新区中的两江指的是长江和嘉陵江。重庆位于两江交汇之处。重庆有250家“财富”世界500强企业,其中有147家在两江新区。去年,两江新区吸引了重庆市100亿美元外来投资的三分之一,即33亿美元。

    Li Guang is particularly eager to attract investment from across Europe, including Central and Eastern Europe.

    李光非常希望能够吸引到欧洲各地的投资,包括中欧和东欧。

    "What we can offer European companies is the sort of market they might not be able to get at home, with the huge local population and also potentially the whole of China," he says.

    他说:“我们能为欧洲企业提供的是他们可能在自己国内无法获得的市场,是一个有着庞大本地劳动力的市场,甚至有可能辐射整个中国。”

    "We are very open about companies coming in here wanting to form joint ventures or some form of cooperation arrangement. We want to attract top industrial teams to Chongqing," Li says.

    李光表示:“我们对于来投资的企业心态非常开放,组建合资企业或其他某种形式的合作都可以。我们希望能够吸引顶级的产业团队来重庆。”

    Jefferson Wang, head of the Greater China government and economic development practice for management consultants A.T. Kearney, says Chongqing, despite being one of the biggest cities in the world, faces a challenge because it is not well-known internationally.

    科尔尼管理咨询公司的大中华政府与经济发展实务管理咨询的主管Jefferson Wang说:“重庆尽管是全世界最大的城市,但它却面临挑战,因为它在国际上知名度不高。”

    "It is certainly not as well-known as Guangzhou or a number of other Chinese cities, and I think this holds it back a little. It is a major challenge for the local government to do more to promote itself," he says.

    “它肯定不像广州或者其他一些中国城市那样众所周知,我认为这有些限制重庆的发展。因此对于地方政府来说,主要的挑战是做更多的事情来宣传、推广自己。”

    "Belt and Road, however, is a major opportunity, since it is at the center of the west of China and can really open the region as a logistics hub."

    “然而‘一带一路’对于重庆来说是一个巨大的机遇,因为重庆位于中国西部的中心,作为物流枢纽城市,可以真正打开中国西部。”

    Wang says it is important to not just focus on rail, with aviation being equally important. The third terminal of Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport opened in August last year, and the aim is for the airport to become a major international air hub and the biggest airport in western China by 2030.

    王认为对于重庆来说不仅要关注铁路,航空同样重要。重庆江北国际机场T3航站楼于去年8月开通,计划2030年前建设成为重要的国际航空枢纽和中国西部最大的机场。

    "Of the 69 international routes at the airport, 44 are linked to countries on China's Belt and Road. There is huge potential here," says Wang.

    王说:“江北机场的69条国际航线中,有44条与中国的‘一带一路’计划相连。这里潜力巨大。”

    Logistics are vital for Chongqing, since it has emerged as a major manufacturing center with a significant proportion of China's manufacturing moving westward, away from the eastern seaboard and southern China, where the country's economic transformation began 40 years ago after Deng Xiaoping's reform and opening-up.

    物流对于重庆来说至关重要。40年前中国的经济在邓小平改革开放后开始转型。重庆远离东部沿海和南方城市,西部大开发以来,重庆承接产业转移,成为重要的制造业中心。

    Shi Rui, deputy director of the modern service industry department at Chongqing's Liangjiang New Area Investment Invitation Group, says logistics challenges have previously held the city back.

    重庆两江新区招商合作局现代服务业部副部长施蕊表示,物流的挑战此前曾制约着重庆的发展。

    "It has always been very challenging for us. We have a local saying that it is easier to get to heaven than out of Chongqing because of the mountains. So for the past 20 years, Chongqing has invested heavily in logistics infrastructure, developing the airport and establishing railway connections," she says.

    她说:“这对于我们来说一直充满挑战性。有句古诗形容川渝地区的交通,‘蜀道难,难于上青天’。在过去的20年里,重庆在物流基础设施方面投入了大量资金,大力发展机场和铁路建设。”

    This has enabled Chongqing to become the world's largest laptop producer in just over a decade.

    这使得重庆在短短十多年内成为世界上最大的笔记本电脑生产商。

    In fact, one-third of the world's laptops are made in the municipality with Acer, Asus, Toshiba and Sony all establishing major operations.

    事实上,世界上三分之一的笔记本电脑都是在重庆市生产的,宏碁、华硕、东芝和索尼都在这里建立了主要的业务。

    "Traditionally, Chongqing has been based on heavy industry, but the gradual switch to light industry such as laptop production has been built on developing the city as a logistical hub," says Li Guang, of the Liangjiang New Area Investment Invitation Group.

    两江投资招商集团的李光表示:“重庆传统产业一直以重工业为主,现在在逐步向轻工业转型,如笔记本电脑的生产。这一转型正是建立在把重庆发展成物流中心这一基础上。”

    "The railway connection to Europe has made it easier to transport laptops there and also easier to establish supply chains."

    “中欧班列使得运输笔记本电脑更加方便,也更容易建立供应链。”

    Edward Tse, founder and chief executive officer of management consultancy Gao Feng Advisory, believes Chongqing is representative of a major global shift as China's Belt and Road evolves.

    高风管理咨询公司的创始人兼首席执行官谢祖墀认为,重庆是中国“一带一路”进程中全球产业转移的代表之一。

    "We are moving away from the world which was dominated by the maritime powers in the 19th century like Britain, and then after World War II by the United States, to one where the countries that were previously landlocked are emerging," he says.

    他说:“19世纪由英国等海洋强国主导的世界以及二战后由美国主导的世界已经逐渐远去。现在是内陆国家和地区正在崛起的世界。”

    "Chongqing is almost a starting point for this change, linking China through Central Asia to Europe. It is a very natural revival of this axis of the world that once formed the old silk routes."

    “重庆几乎是这个改变的起点,将中国通过中亚连接至欧洲。这是一个非常自然的复兴,这条路线曾是古老的丝绸之路。”

    One of Chongqing's impressive logistics facilities is Guoyan Port, the largest inland river port of its kind in China, which handles 30 million metric tons of freight a year.

    重庆令人印象深刻的物流港口之一是中国最大的内河港口——果园港,年吞吐能力3000万吨。

    The port was opened in 2008 and now has 16 ship berths, each handling 5,000 tons. On a visit to the site in 2016, President Xi Jinping said the port was "full of promise for the future".

    这个港口于2008年开放,目前有16个船舶泊位,每个泊位吞吐能力5000吨。习近平主席在2016年参观该港口时说道,“这里大有希望”。

    The port handles cars - Chongqing is a major car production center, with Changan Ford having a major manufacturing base in the Liangjiang New Area - as well as coal, ore and mining products

    汽车在这个港口装箱运输——重庆是一个主要的汽车生产中心,长安福特在两江新区拥有主要的制造基地。煤炭、矿石和矿产品同样是在这里运输。

    Containers can be offloaded at the port and transported by rail to Europe. The port is one of the most important on the Yangtze River Economic Belt, with goods making the 2,000-km journey downstream to Shanghai.

    集装箱可以在港口卸货并直接通过铁路运输到欧洲。这个港口是长江经济带上最重要的港口之一,船上的货物往下游航行2000公里即可到达上海港。

    It takes from 10 to 17 days to transport goods from Chongqing to Shanghai at a cost of 4,000 yuan ($603; 517 euros; £456) per standard container. This is considerably cheaper than the 16,000 yuan by road, which takes 24 hours, and the 8,000 yuan by rail, which takes three to four days.

    从重庆往上海运输货物需要10-17天,但每标箱只需4000元人民币(603美元,517欧元,456英镑)。这比运输时间24小时,价格16000元的公路运输便宜,也比耗时三至四天,价格8000元的铁路运输便宜。

    "We are very well connected to rail, roads and waterways. It is important to have a multichannel logistics network," says Fang Liang, manager of the port's commercial department.

    果园港的商务部经理方亮告诉记者,“重庆铁公水多式联运无缝连接,这非常重要。”

    Liu Wanhong, a director of Minsheng Shipping - one of the biggest users of the port, accounting for 30 percent of its container volume - says the port facility has encouraged many companies to locate in the area.

    "One of the most important considerations companies have is about getting goods in and out," he says.

    民生轮船是果园港的最大客户之一,其占了港口集装箱总量的30%。该公司航运管理部部长刘万洪表示,果园港吸引了许多公司进入该地区。“货物进出的方便程度,是公司考虑的最重要的因素之一。”他说。

    Another logistics facility is the Chongqing Lianglu-Cuntan Free Trade Port Area, which is the only bonded port area in western China. It has been in operation since 2008 and is one of only 14 such areas in the country.

    重庆另一个重要的物流设施是重庆两路寸滩保税港区,这是中国内陆唯一一个“水港+空港”的保税港区。保税港区从2008年投用,全国保税港区只有14个。

    Goods entering the bonded port are deemed not to have entered the country until they leave, when they will be subject to normal customs clearance. Both Chongqing Liangbei International Airport and Cuntan Port are within the bonded zone, which is home to six of the top 10 logistics companies in the world.

    进入保税港区的货物在离开之前被视为没有进入中国,出港时才正常清关。重庆的江北机场和寸滩港都在保税港区内,世界前十大物流公司中有六家都入驻保税港区。

    "It is very important for Chongqing to have its own bonded zone. We produce a lot of cars and laptops here, and if all these have to go through Shanghai or Shenzhen, it becomes very expensive for manufacturers," says Huang Qu, deputy general manager of the free trade port.

    “有自己的保税港区对于重庆来说非常重要。我们每年都生产大量的汽车和笔记本电脑,如果这些商品都必须通过上海或者深圳出口,对于制造商来说成本会很高。”保税港区的副总经理黄曲说道。

    One of the exciting aspects of Chongqing's new connectivity is being able to link Europe to Southeast Asia by rail.

    重庆铁路通道又添了南向通道,连接东南亚与欧洲。

    One of the key organizations facilitating this is the Chongqing Connectivity Initiative - whose full name is the China-Singapore (Chongqing) Demonstration Initiative on Strategic Connectivity.

    促成这个通道的关键因素之一是中新互联互通项目,全称是中新(重庆)战略性互联互通示范项目。

    It is the third major intergovernmental initiative formed between China and Singapore. The other two are the China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park, which was launched in 1994 and seen as vital to China's early industrial development, and the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city.

    这是中国和新加坡第三个政府间合作项目。另外两个项目分别是是中新苏州工业园和中新天津生态城。中新苏州工业园于1994年批准成立,对于中国早期的工业发展起着至关重要的作用。

    The Chongqing Connectivity Initiative was launched in November 2015 by President Xi and Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong with the aim of developing cooperation in financial services, aviation logistics and transportation, and communication and information technology.

    中新互联互通项目于2015年11月由习主席和新加坡总理李显龙共同发起,旨在开展金融服务,航空物流和运输,通信,信息技术等方面的合作。

    Han Baochang, the initiative's director-general, believes there is a real opportunity to build connections between Europe and Singapore.

    "Chongqing has a real opportunity to elevate its status into a hub for international logistics," he says in his offices in Chongqing's Jiangbeizui financial district.

    中新(重庆)战略性互联互通示范项目管理局局长韩宝昌认为,这是一个能够真正建立起新加坡与欧洲之间的联系的机会。“对于重庆来说,这同样是一个能够真正提升自身地位的机会,成为国际物流中心。”他在重庆江北嘴金融区的办公室说道。

    He cites the example of a Vietnam manufacturer of high-end sports shoes that might need high-quality plastics from Europe.

    他举了一个例子,如越南高端运动鞋制造商可能会需要来自欧洲的高品质塑料。

    "The raw materials can come via rail from Europe to Chongqing and then go through the Southern Transport Corridor to Vietnam. The end product can then be sold across ASEAN countries or Europe, going back by the same route."

    “原材料可以通过铁路从欧洲运到重庆,再通过南向通道到达越南。成品可以销往东盟的各个国家,也可以沿相同的路线返回在欧洲销售。”

    Tse at Gao Feng Advisory believes there is a bigger picture to the establishment of greater links between Europe and China.

    高风咨询的谢祖墀认为,欧洲和中国之间建立起更紧密的联系将有更大的前景。

    "There is a danger of seeing this just in terms of rail links. It all becomes a little bit technical if that is the case. It ignores that China now has this overarching view emboldened by Xi Jinping's concept of building a 'common destiny for mankind'. This is not just Europe and China working together, but also countries in Africa, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and elsewhere, too."

    “仅仅看到铁路间的联系是不明智的。如果是这样来看的话,所有的一切都只是技术上的一些联系了。这种观点忽视了中国现在有这样一种总体观点,即习近平主席提出的建立‘人类命运共同体’的构想。这不仅体现着欧洲和中国的共同努力,也包括非洲、中亚、东南亚和其他地区国家。”

    Hu Yongqi contributed to this story.

编辑:刘春雪
中国 ● 重庆两江新区党工委管委会 地址:重庆渝北区金渝大道金山大厦招商电话:8623-67573888 8623-67573997
渝ICP备15010887  |   渝公网安备 50019002501334号  |  网上传播视听节目许可证(0104065)  |  主办:重庆两江新区党工委管委会
主办:重庆两江新区党工委管委会
执行:两江新区宣传部(文明办)